Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: Mohammad Abedin
Numerous biliary proteins as well as non-protein factors influence kinetics of cholesterol crystallisation from supersaturated bile. Cholesterol crystallisation pathways, methods used for quantitative evaluation of liquid-to-solid transition of cholesterol in bile and the classical concept of nucleation defect in pathogenesis of gallstones are reviewed in the first part of this article. The relevance of individual biliary proteins and non-protein factors is discussed in the second part. Finally, a new concept according to which accelerated crystallisation of cholesterol inhibits gallstone growth and protects the gallbladder wall from toxic injury resulting from the increased absorption and accumulation of cholesterol from supersaturated bile is suggested.