Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Advances in immunology, biochemistry, and molecular biology have combined to allow the development of a large series of autoantibody assays utilizing recombinantly produced autoantigens. Labeled target proteins can be readily produced by in vitro transcription and translation of relevant cloned cDNA. The assays are carried out in the fluid phase and for most assays are more specific and sensitive than ELISA based assays. For some antigens (e.g. insulin) though ELISA assays detect antibodies following immunization, workshops indicate they are almost worthless for the diagnosis and prediction of type 1A diabetes. This new generation of radioassays is usually carried out in 96-well microtiter filtration plates that allow high throughput. Given such assays, individuals at high risk for type 1A diabetes, celiac disease, and Addison's disease can now be readily identified.