Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
†These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor:Richard Pestell
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women. The underlying mechanisms that cause aberrant cell proliferation and tumor growth involve conserved pathways, which include components of the cell cycle machinery. Proto-oncogenes, growth factors, and steroids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Surgery, local irradiation, and chemotherapy have been the mainstay of treatment for early and advanced stage disease. Potential targets for selective breast cancer therapy are herein reviewed. Improved understanding of the biology of breast cancer has led to more specific "targeted therapies" directed at biological processes that are selectively deregulated in the cancerous cells. Examples include tamoxifen for estrogen receptor positive tumors and imunoneutralizing antibodies such as trastuzumab for Her2/neu overexpressing tumors. Other novel anticancer agents such as paclitaxel, a microtubule binding molecule, and flavopiridol, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, exert their anticancer effects by inhibiting cell cycle progression.