Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a childhood psychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and overactivity. Considerable research has focused on the neurobiological substrates of this disorder. Although the specific nature of the brain dysfunction remains elusive, progress has been made and several models of the underlying pathophysiology have been suggested. Research in the fields of neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neurochemistry, and molecular genetics, which points to a multifactorial etiology for the disorder, is reviewed. While several inconsistencies exist across studies, evidence supports dysfunction of fronto-striatal dopaminergic and noradrenergic circuits with resultant executive deficits in cognitive functioning.