IMR Press / FBL / Volume 5 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/black

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Protein kinase C-mediated regulation of the cell cycle
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1 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Academic Editor:Xavier Grana
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2000, 5(3), 406–423; https://doi.org/10.2741/black
Published: 1 April 2000
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eukaryotic cell cycle control)
Abstract

Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of signal transduction molecules have been widely implicated in regulation of cell growth/cell cycle progression and differentiation. Increasing evidence from studies using in vitro and in vivo systems points to PKC as a key regulator of critical cell cycle transitions, including cell cycle entry and exit and the G1 and G2 checkpoints. PKC-mediated control of these transitions can be negative or positive, depending on the timing of PKC activation during the cell cycle and on the specific PKC isozymes involved. Most of the mechanistic information available relates to the involvement of this enzyme family in negative regulation of these transitions. Accumulating data indicate that a major target for PKC-mediated inhibition of cell cycle progression is the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p21waf1/cip1. Increased expression of p21waf1/cip1 blocks cdk2 activity in G1 phase, leading to hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and inhibition of cell cycle progression into S phase. In G2, p21waf1/cip1 expression blocks cdc2/cyclin B activity, likely through an indirect mechanism involving inhibition of the cdk2/cyclin A complex, and prevents progression into M phase. PKC signaling can also activate a coordinated program of pocket protein regulation leading to cell cycle withdrawal into G0. The molecular events underlying positive regulation of cell cycle progression by PKC signaling remain poorly understood, although there is evidence for a role of the enzyme in promoting G2→M progression by phosphorylating lamin B at sites involved in nuclear lamina disassembly. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying PKC-mediated control of the cell cycle is beginning to provide important insight into its role in uncontrolled cell growth and transformation.

Keywords
PKC
cell cycle
cell growth
p21waf1/cip1
G1 to S transition
G2 to M transition
cell cycle exit
intestinal epithelium
colon carcinogenesis
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