Academic Editor: Graham Pawelec
Background: Fat Embolism Syndrome (FES) is a clinical condition characterized by neurological, respiratory, hematological and cutaneous manifestations. Fatal FES has been described as a rare complication during or after spinal elective surgery. The investigation of the cause of death in fatalities related with spine surgery should be mandatory to exclude or confirm fat embolism; a detailed methodological approach to the body in these cases suggests to provide a cautious dissection of surgical site and collection of samples to detect embolized fat globules in vessels. Methods: Two fatal cases of fat embolism syndrome after posterior spinal fusion are presented. Conclusions: A complete post mortem examination by means of histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis explained the cause of death and prevented medical malpractice litigation.