IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.52586/5024
Open Access Review
Immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in clinical trials
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1 Centre for Virus and Vaccine Research, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Allergy and Immunology Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, 40170 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
4 School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

These authors contributed equally.

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(11), 1286–1304; https://doi.org/10.52586/5024
Submitted: 11 June 2021 | Revised: 24 September 2021 | Accepted: 24 September 2021 | Published: 30 November 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by BRI.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections were first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and resulted in a worldwide pandemic in 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infections totalled more than 180 million with 3.9 million deaths as of June 24, 2021. Tremendous research efforts have resulted in the development of at least 64 vaccine candidates that have reached Phase I to III clinical trials within 14 months. The primary efficacy endpoint for a random placebo-controlled clinical trial of a COVID-19 vaccine to be approved by US FDA should confer at least 50% protection against COVID-19. Three COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273 and Sputnik V) in clinical Phase III trials have now achieved >90% efficacy in preventing COVID-19. Since SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious, vaccines are expected to achieve at least 80% herd immunity in the world’s population to effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections. An overview of safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the current frontrunner vaccines are reviewed.

Keywords
Immunogenicity
Safety
SARS-CoV-2
Vaccines
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