IMR Press / FBL / Volume 25 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/4850

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Low-cost preventive screening using carotid ultrasound in patients with diabetes
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1 Professor M Viswanathan Diabetes Research Center, Royapuram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of ECE, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India
3 Department of ECE working with College of Engineering Karunagapally, India
4 Annu's Hospitals for Skin and Diabetes, Andhra Pradesh, India
5 Department of Cardiology, Indraprastha APOLLO Hospitals, New Delhi, India
6 Department of Radiology, University of Cagliari, Italy
7 Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Slovenia
8 Department of Radiology and Ultrasound, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases Croatia
9 Cardiology Clinic, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece
10 Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
11 Heart and Vascular Institute, Adventist Health St. Helena, St Helena, CA, USA
12 Minimally Invasive Urology Institute, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
13 Men’s Health Center, Miriam Hospital Providence, Rhode Island, USA
14 Rheumatology Unit, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
15 Department of Cardiovascular Prevention and Research Unit Clinic and Laboratory of Pathophysiology, National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens, Greece
16 R and D Academic Affairs, Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust, Dudley, United kingdom
17 Shree Polyclinic & Lab, Bangalore, India
18 Preventive Health Check, Fortis Hospital, Bannerghatta Road, Bengaluru, India
19 MD, Department of endocrinology, Ridge Hospital, Accra, Ghana
20 Head of Cardiology, Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Ridge, Accra, Ghana
21 Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA
22 Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
23 Vascular Screening and Diagnostic Centre and University of Nicosia Medical School, Cyprus
24 Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
25 Brigham and Women’s Hospital Heart and Vascular Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
26 Stroke Monitoring and Diagnostic Division, AtheroPoint™, Roseville, CA, USA
Send correspondence to: Jasjit S. Suri, Stroke Monitoring and Diagnostic Division, AtheroPoint™, Roseville, CA, USA, Tel: 916-749-5628, Fax: 916-749-4942, E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2020, 25(6), 1132–1171;
Published: 1 March 2020

Diabetes and atherosclerosis are the predominant causes of stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) both in low- and high-income countries. This is due to the lack of appropriate medical care or high medical costs. Low-cost 10-year preventive screening can be used for deciding an effective therapy to reduce the effects of atherosclerosis in diabetes patients. American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) recommended the use of 10-year risk calculators, before advising therapy. Conventional risk calculators are suboptimal in certain groups of patients because their stratification depends on (a) current blood biomarkers and (b) clinical phenotypes, such as age, hypertension, ethnicity, and sex. The focus of this review is on risk assessment using innovative composite risk scores that use conventional blood biomarkers combined with vascular image-based phenotypes. AtheroEdge™ tool is beneficial for low-moderate to high-moderate and low-risk to high-risk patients for the current and 10-year risk assessment that outperforms conventional risk calculators. The preventive screening tool that combines the image-based phenotypes with conventional risk factors can improve the 10-year cardiovascular/stroke risk assessment.

ACC guideline
AHA guideline
Conventional Risk Calculator
10-year risk assessment
And Image Phenotypes
Figure 1
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