IMR Press / FBL / Volume 25 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/4801

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Drosophila models of traumatic brain injury
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1 Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan
Send correspondence to: Rikako Sanuki, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan, Tel: 81-75-873-260, Fax: 81-75-861-0881, E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2020, 25(1), 168–178;
Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutting edge of insect biomedical science)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes substantial mortality and disability, but effective treatments are unavailable. An external force causes primary injury, which is followed by secondary injury that triggers chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying post-TBI secondary injury might provide insights into neurodegenerative diseases. The secondary injury is known to share some physiological features with neurodegenerative diseases. So far, many TBI models in mammals exist, but models in other species are required from the viewpoint of lifespan and animal welfare. In Drosophila, closed and open TBI models are available. Both models have focused on TBI-induced changes in innate immunity. Aging strongly induces innate immunity responses, and neuroinflammation plays an important role in both mammalian models of TBI and humans with TBI. Although Drosophila models do not mimic all phenomena involved in post-TBI secondary injury in mammals, further experiments with Drosophila models and other animal models could elucidate the mechanisms involved in post-TBI secondary brain injury, which would in turn elucidate neurodegenerative processes. 

Neurodegenerative disease
Figure 1
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