IMR Press / FBL / Volume 23 / Issue 9 / DOI: 10.2741/4666

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

LINE-1 activity and regulation in cancer

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1 Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2018, 23(9), 1680–1686; https://doi.org/10.2741/4666
Published: 1 March 2018
Abstract

LINE-1 retrotransposons are ubiquitous genetic elements interspersed within the primary nuclear genome of modern day humans. Although shorter LINE-1-derived sequences occupy nearly one-in-five nucleotides of our genome, we are just beginning to appreciate the link between these important genetic elements and cancer, perhaps the most well-studied major degenerative disorder affecting humanity today. Herein, I summarize empirical observations linking LINE-1 to tumorigenesis. The work is organized into three major parts. First, I provide an overview of LINE-1 activity in cancer; highlighting major features of LINE-1 life-cycle such as: promoter methylation, transcription, translation, and retrotransposition. Second, I discuss three genetic pathways - epigenetic regulation, interferon signaling, and genome integrity – as they relate to LINE-1 regulation in cancer. Finally, I review most recent body of work linking LINE-1 as not only a diagnostic cancer biomarker, but also a potential therapeutic target.

Keywords
LINE-1 Retrotransposon
Cancer Biology
Experimental Evidence
Review
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