Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Genital human papillomavirus infections
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can have clinical presentations from self-limited benign growth in the skin and mucosal epithelia to malignant growth. HPV infects basal epithelial cells (undifferentiated keratinocytes) of the squamous-columnar junction, especially of the cervix. Although today we understand HPV oncogenesis very well, we have very powerful methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HPV related precancerous lesions, however, more than 270,000 women annually die from cervical cancer worldwide. Integrating HPV vaccination with new, more sensitive, cervical screening assays as part of routine preventive care will improve healthcare for all women. The availability of prophylactic HPV vaccines has provided powerful tools for primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-associated diseases. Secondary prevention through primary high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) testing has the potential to further reduce morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer. However, to achieve the maximum benefit of screening, there is need to continue to identify women who are either unscreened or under-screened. Synergies between HPV vaccination and HPV screening is recommended to improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prevention HPV-related disease.