Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Immunological control of ticks and tick-borne diseases that impact cattle health and production
The cattle industry is one of the most important agroeconomic activities in Mexico. The national herd is estimated to include approximately 33.5. million head of cattle. Ticks and tick-borne diseases are principal factors with a negative impact on cattle health and production. The most economically important tick species parasitizing cattle in Mexico are Rhipicephalus microplus, R. annulatus, and Amblyomma mixtum. Parasitism by ticks affects cattle health and production directly. Morbidity and mortality caused by tick-borne diseases augment the detrimental effect of tick infestation in cattle. Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are the most important tick-borne diseases of cattle, which are caused by infectious agents transmitted by R. microplus and R. annulatus. However, there are no prophylactic therapies to control bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Chemical control is the most common way to treat animals against ticks, and the use of acaricides can also help manage tick-borne diseases. However, the evolution of resistance to acaricides among cattle tick populations renders chemical control ineffective; which represents a challenge for sustainable ticks and tick-borne diseases control. The only anti-tick vaccine commercially available globally is based on the recombinant antigen Bm86. Because of its mode of immunity against R. microplus and R. annulatus, the Bm86-based vaccine also decreases the exposition of bovines to babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Research with Bm86-based vaccines documented high efficacy against R. annulatus, the efficacy levels against R. microplus varies according to the geographic origin of tick populations, and there is not effect against other ticks species such as Amblyomma spp. The impact of ticks and tick-borne diseases, the problem of chemical control due to acaricide resistance, and progress with anti-tick vaccine research efforts in Mexico are reviewed herein.