IMR Press / FBL / Volume 23 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/4649

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Hoehn and Yahr staging of Parkinson’s disease in relation to neuropsychological measures

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1 Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
2 Department of Psychology, Curry College, Milton, MA, USA
3 Department of Psychiatry & McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA
4 Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2018, 23(7), 1370–1379;
Published: 1 March 2018

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily considered to be a progressive degenerative motor disease associated with the degeneration of striatal dopamine neurons. However, increasing evidence has suggested progressive cognitive and psychiatric changes as well. Forty-six patients with PD, ranging in severity from Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) score of 1:4, were recruited from a clinic specializing in PD. Various cognitive and neuropsychological measures were used to discover if there were indeed differences due to the progression of PD. As H-Y stage significantly increased, so did age and levodopa equivalency dose of medications, both independent of one another. Years of education had a significant negative relationship with H-Y score. Measures of general cognition divulged a significant decrease as H-Y score increased. Finally, as H-Y score increased, magical ideation decreased, and religious group social support increased. Mechanistically, the significant cognitive decline occurring with H-Y staging may be linked to a reduced dopaminergic function. Significant cognitive and neuropsychological changes are associated with the progression of PD and its possible relationship to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS).

Parkinson’s disease
Hoehn and Yahr
Reward Deficiency Syndrome
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