Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Modified low-density lipoproteins as biomarkers in diabetes and metabolic syndrome
Cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic origin is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. One of the mechanisms involved in such increased risk is the high incidence of lipoprotein modification in these pathologies. Increased glycosylation, oxidative stress or high non-esterified fatty acid levels in blood, among other factors, promote the modification and subsequent alteration of the properties of lipoproteins. Since the modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the triggering factor in the development of atherosclerosis, considerable research has been focused on the quantification of modified LDLs in blood to be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The present review deals with the main molecular mechanisms involved in the modification of LDL in diabetes and metabolic syndrome and briefly describe the atherogenic effects that these modified LDLs exert on the arterial wall. The possibility of using the high levels of modified LDLs or their immunocomplexes as a predictive tool for cardiovascular risk in diabetes-related pathologies is also discussed.