IMR Press / FBL / Volume 22 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.2741/4545

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

The crossroads between cancer immunity and autoimmunity: antibodies to self antigens

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1 Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, Rome, 00133 Italy
2 Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome, Sapienza, Rome, 00164 Italy
3 Department of Sports Science, Human and Health, University of Rome ‘Foro Italico’, Rome, 00135 Italy
4 Center for Regenerative Medicine (CIMER), University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, 00133 Italy

Academic Editor: Roberto Bei

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2017, 22(8), 1289–1329; https://doi.org/10.2741/4545
Published: 1 March 2017
Abstract

The production of autoantibodies to self antigens is dependent on the failure of immune tolerance. Cancer cells express antigens which elicit a spontaneous immune response in cancer patients. The repertoire of autoantibodies found in cancer patients partly covers that of patients with autoimmune diseases. Biological activities of autoantibodies to self antigens may induce paraneoplastic syndromes which reflect the attempt of cancer patients to counteract tumor growth. Autoantibodies with similar specificities may have different effects in cancer and autoimmune disease patients due to different immunological microenvironments. Tregs dysfunction has been observed in patients with paraneoplastic syndromes and/or with autoimmune diseases, while the increase of Tregs has been associated with poor cancer patients prognosis. Novel therapies have employed antibodies against Tregs immune-checkpoint receptors with the aim to boost immune response in cancer patients. The presence of autoantibodies to tumors antigens has also been investigated as a marker for cancer detection and cancer patients prognosis. This report reviews the current knowledge on the analysis and meaning of autoantibodies to self antigens detected in cancer and autoimmune disease patients.

Keywords
Tumor antigens
Autoantibodies
Paraneoplastic Syndromes
Autoimmunity
Tregs
Review
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