Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Epigenetic and risk factors of testicular germ cell tumors: a brief review
Academic Editor: Diddier Prada
Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCT) is the most common malignancy among young adult males, which has become important due to its increased incidence and mortality in the population worldwide. The etiology is multifactorial. Recent studies have shown some associations between the development of isolated TGCT and certain risk factors, such as exposure to endocrine disruptors, cryptorchidism, and family history of cancer, in order to identify the key pieces in carcinogenesis. Some of the most important findings in recent years is the association of different genes, such as c-KIT/KITLG, expression of the miR-371-373 cluster and protein expression as c-KIT and POU5F1 in the development of this neoplasia, and the identification of new molecular markers as TGFBR3 gene, identifying aberrant methylation patterns in promoter regions of several genes, expression of miR-1297 which regulates PTEN and protein expression as DMTR1. In the future, a multidisciplinary research strategy could provide valuable new insights into the etiology of TGCTs, which support clinical diagnosis of TGCT in the next years to increase survival in this kind of patients.