IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/4448

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Vascular sphingolipids in physiological and pathological adaptation

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1 Department of Aerospace Hygiene, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, People’s Republic of China
Academic Editor:Pin-Lan Li
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(6), 1168–1186; https://doi.org/10.2741/4448
Published: 1 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular pathobiology of lipid mediators)
Abstract

Sphingolipids (SLs) are compounds containing a long-chain fatty alcohol amine called sphingosine which exists in cellular membranes, cytoplasm, nucleus, interstitial fluid, blood and lymphatic circulation. SLs act as essential constituents of membranes of eukaryotic cells, so the seesaw of SLs will lead to structural alteration of membranes instigating cellular functional change. SLs also act as crucial signaling molecules taking effect intracellularly or extracellularly which regulates activity of downstream molecules determining cellular adaptation to numerous stimulus. This review aims to highlight the contribution of SLs to physiological and pathophysiological remodeling of vasculature. We will first provide a short overview on metabolism, trafficking and compartmentalization of SLs. Then the regulation of SLs on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, vascular tone modulation, endothelial barrier integrity, apoptosis and autophagy are summarized. Finally, we will discuss how the SLs are modulated contributing to vascular development, angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in pathological situations as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aging. The compellingly regulative actions of SLs bring about copious therapeutic targets for potential pharmacological intervention on the diseases involving vascular maladaptation.

Keywords
Sphingolipid
Vascular Adaptation
Ceramide
Sphingosine-1-Phosphate
Review
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