IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/4427

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Gut microbiota and immunopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2

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1 Health Management Institute, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
2 Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing 100044, China
Academic Editor:Fei He
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(5), 900–906;
Published: 1 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular immunology and stem cell biology)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major increasing global health burden in the aging population. Understanding the etiology of DM is beneficial for its prevention as well as treatment. In light of the metagenome hypothesis, defined as the overall bacterial genome, gut microbes have attracted increasing attention in the pathogenesis of DM. Many studies have found that gut microbes are involved in the immunopathogenesis of DM. Probiotics strengthen the host’s intestinal barrier and modulate the immune system, and have therefore been investigated in DM management. Recent epigenetic findings in context of genes associated with inflammation suggest a possible way in which gut microbiota participate in the immunopathogenesis of DM. In this review, we discuss the role of gut microbiota in the immunopathogenesis of DM.

Diabetes mellitus
Gut microbiota
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