IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/4408

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Regeneration in the nervous system with erythropoietin

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1 Cellular and Molecular Signaling, Newark, New Jersey 07101, USA
Academic Editor:Kenneth Maiese
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(3), 561–596; https://doi.org/10.2741/4408
Published: 1 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration in the nervous system)
Abstract

Globally, greater than 30 million individuals are afflicted with disorders of the nervous system accompanied by tens of thousands of new cases annually with limited, if any, treatment options. Erythropoietin (EPO) offers an exciting and novel therapeutic strategy to address both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. EPO governs a number of critical protective and regenerative mechanisms that can impact apoptotic and autophagic programmed cell death pathways through protein kinase B (Akt), sirtuins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, and wingless signaling. Translation of the cytoprotective pathways of EPO into clinically effective treatments for some neurodegenerative disorders has been promising, but additional work is necessary. In particular, development of new treatments with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents such as EPO brings several important challenges that involve detrimental vascular outcomes and tumorigenesis. Future work that can effectively and safely harness the complexity of the signaling pathways of EPO will be vital for the fruitful treatment of disorders of the nervous system.

Keywords
Akt
AMPK
apoptosis
autophagy
erythropoietin
forkhead
FoxO
mTOR
oxidative stress
rapamycin
sirtuin
SIRT1
stem cells
trauma
WISP1
Wnt
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