IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/4384

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein quality control in cardiomyocytes

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1 Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, 29209, USA
2 Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
Academic Editors:Xihui Xu, Jun Ren
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(1), 192–202; https://doi.org/10.2741/4384
Published: 1 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein quality control and metabolic stress)
Abstract

Protein quality control (PQC) acts to minimize the level and toxicity of malfolded proteins in the cell. It is performed by an elaborate network of molecular chaperones and targeted protein degradation pathways. PQC monitors and maintains protein homeostasis or proteostasis in the cells. Whilst chaperones may actively promote refolding of malfolded proteins, the malfolded proteins which cannot be correctly refolded are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosome pathway (ALP). The UPS degrades individual misfolded protein molecules, whereas the ALP removes large and less soluble protein aggregates and organelles. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated and inadequate PQC play an important role in the pathogenesis of not only classic conformational disease but more common forms of cardiac pathology such as cardiac pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor of cellular defense, appears to regulate the USP and the ALP by directly controlling the expression of UPS-and ALP-related genes. This article highlights an emerging role of Nrf2 in the regulation of intracellular PQC as well as its potential involvement in cardiac pathology.

Keywords
autophagy
nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2
proteasome
protein quality control
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