IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/4378

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Regulation and involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in vascular diseases

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1 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, KY-40202, USA
Academic Editor:Jian Cao
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(1), 89–118; https://doi.org/10.2741/4378
Published: 1 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix metalloproteinases in diseases)
Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc dependent endopeptidases whose main function is to degrade and deposit structural proteins within the extracellular matrix (ECM). A dysregulation of MMPs is linked to vascular diseases. MMPs are classified into collagenases, gelatinases, membrane-type, metalloelastase, stromelysins, matrilysins, enamelysins, and unclassified subgroups. The production of MMPs is stimulated by factors such as oxidative stress, growth factors and inflammation which lead to its up-or down-regulation with subsequent ECM remodeling. Normally, excess activation of MMPs is controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). An imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs has been implicated in hypertension, atherosclerotic plaque formation and instability, aortic aneurysms and varicose vein wall remodeling. Also, recent evidence suggests epigenetic regulation of some MMPs in angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Over the years, pharmacological inhibitors of MMPs have been used to modify or prevent the development of the disease with some success. In this review, we discuss recent advances in MMP biology, and their involvement in the manifestation of vascular disease.

Keywords
MMPs
TIMPs
miRNA
Epigenetics
Extracellular Matrix
Atherosclerosis
Cardiovascular
Review
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