Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Ischemic stroke is a common cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Inflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and its mechanism is complex. Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, an imbalance of which leads to inflammation. Inflammatory cells from both the innate and acquired immune systems are involved in ischemic stroke-related inflammation; processes that are linked by the action of interleukin-17A (IL-17A). Although most inflammatory cells promote inflammation, T regulatory cells (Tregs) may have a protective function at the early stages of an ischemic injury, but a negative role during later stages. However, the precise mechanism of inflammation in ischemic stroke remains elusive; further understanding of it may provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. In this review, we discuss the role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators and related immune cells in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke.