IMR Press / FBL / Volume 17 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/4033

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Oxidative stress: the achilles' heel of neurodegenerative diseases of the retina

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1 Department of Ophthalmology, Dean McGee Eye Institute, Oklahoma City, OK 73104
2 Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104
3 Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2012, 17(5), 1976–1995;
Published: 1 January 2012

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the developed countries. It is characterized by the progressive loss of central vision. AMD is classified into two forms: dry and wet. Dry AMD involves the accumulation of deposits in the RPE and Bruch's membrane; Wet AMD is characterized by neovascularization in the choroid. Whether the two forms of AMD share the same mechanism for the disease development is presently not clear. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and ER-stress are the common modes for the pathogenesis of AMD. In addition, other risk factors and several signaling pathways have been implicated as causative factors of AMD. In this paper, the mechanisms underlying AMD, risk factors involved in the pathology, representative animal models, and therapeutic treatment strategies are reviewed.

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