IMR Press / FBL / Volume 16 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/3846

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Purinoceptors in inflammation: potential as anti-inflammatory therapeutic targets
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1 Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Sciences, University of the Study of Milan, Milan, Italy

Academic Editor: Elena Adinolfi

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2011, 16(6), 2172–2186;
Published: 1 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purinergic signalling in bone and inflammation)

Purinergic receptors or purinoceptors are expressed in many mammalian cells and are activated by extracellular purines (adenine, purine nucleotides and nucleosides). Both adenosine (P1) and nucleotide/nucleoside (P2, grouped in P2X and P2Y subtypes) receptors exert important role in the inflammatory processes. The significative up-regulation of many purinoceptors located on the immune cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells and lymphocytes) in the course of inflammatory diseases supports the interpretation of their functions. New insights into the involvement of purinoceptors also in the neuro-inflammatory diseases (e.g., conditions of chronic inflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases) are proposed. The identification of antagonists of purinergic receptors potentially useful to control inflammatory pathways represents the object of many studies reported in the recent literature. Aim of this review is to recapitulate the most recent data and experimental findings that highlight the critical, double edge, effect of these receptors in inflammation, making consistent the possibility to target them to control and regulate inflammation.

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