IMR Press / FBL / Volume 13 / Issue 14 / DOI: 10.2741/3077

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Origins and evolution of modern biochemistry: insights from genomes and molecular structure
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1 Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Massimo Giulio

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2008, 13(14), 5212–5240;
Published: 1 May 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early evolution of life)

The survey of components in living systems at different levels of organization enables an evolutionary exploration of patterns and processes in macromolecules, networks, and genomic repertoires. Here we discuss how phylogenetic strategies that generate intrinsically rooted phylogenies impact the evolutionary study of RNA and protein components of the macromolecular machinery that is responsible for biological function. We used these methods to generate timelines of discovery of components in systems, such as substructures in RNA molecules, architectures in proteomes, domains in multi-domain proteins, enzymes in metabolic networks, and protein architectures in proteomes. These timelines unfolded remarkable patterns of origin and evolution of molecules, repertoires and networks, showing episodes of both functional specialization (e.g., rise of domains with specialized functions) and molecular simplification (e.g., reductive tendencies in molecules and proteomes). These observations have important evolutionary implications for origins of translation, the genetic code, modules in the protein world, and diversification of life, and suggest early evolution of modern biochemistry was driven by recruitment of both RNA and protein catalysts in an ancient community of complex organisms.

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