Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
In the last years, nitric oxide synthases (NOS) have been localized in mitochondria. At this site, NO yield directly regulates the activity of cytochrome oxidase, O(2) uptake and the production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies showed that translocated neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is posttranslationally modified including phosphorylation at Ser 1412 (in mice) and myristoylation in an internal residue. Different studies confirm that modified nNOS alpha is the main modulable isoform in mitochondria. Modulation of mtNOS was observed in different situations, like adaptation to reduced O(2) availability and hypoxia, adaptation to low environmental temperature, and processes linked to life and death by effects on kinases and transcription factors. We present here evidence about the role of mtNOS in the analyzed conditions.