IMR Press / FBL / Volume 12 / Issue 13 / DOI: 10.2741/2440

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Influence of cellular microenvironment and paracrine signals on chondrogenic differentiation
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1 Orthopaedic Surgery, Experimental Orthopaedics, University of Regensburg, 93077 Bad Abbach, Kaiser Karl V-Allee 3, Germany
2 Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X5, Canada
Academic Editor:Marcus Jager
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2007, 12(13), 4946–4956; https://doi.org/10.2741/2440
Published: 1 September 2007
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue engineering and stem cell biology in orthopaedics)
Abstract

Articular cartilage disorders and injuries often result in life long chronic pain and compromised quality of life, thus regeneration of articular cartilage is a persistent challenge to medical science. One of the most promising therapeutic approaches is cell based tissue engineering which provides a healthy population of cells to the injured site and requires differentiated chondrocytes from the uninjured site as base material. Use of healthy chondrocytes has several limitations and an excellent alternative cell population could be adult marrow stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are known to possess extensive proliferation potential and proven capability to differentiate into chondrocytes. Both, in vivo and in vitro pliability of MSCs and chondrocytes greatly depends on their microenvironment. Gene and protein expression profiles of both the cell types can be altered by soluble factors from surrounding tissue/ cells or by direct cellular contact. For MSC or chondrocyte-based cartilage repair, inhibition of hypertrophy and stabilization of the cartilaginous phenotype in the implant is a prerequisite for success and long lasting vitality of the repaired tissue.

Keywords
Mesenchymal stem cells
Chondroprogenitor cells
Chondrocytes
Articular cartilage
Microenvironment
Regulatory factors
Coculture
Review
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