Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
The multifunctional protein CAD initiates de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in mammalian cells. CAD is activated by MAP kinase (Erk1/2) just prior to the S phase of the cell cycle, when the demand for pyrimidine nucleotides is greatest, and down-regulated as the cells emerge from S phase by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. MAP kinase phosphorylates Thr456, while PKA phosphorylates Ser1406 and Ser1859, although only Ser1406 is involved in regulation. LC/mass spectrometry showed that Ser1873, a residue that lies within a putative protein kinase C (PKC) consensus sequence is also phosphorylated. Purified CAD was reacted with ATP and a panel of eight PKC isozymes. Most isozymes resulted in limited CAD phosphorylation, but the delta and epsilon isozymes were most effective. While the level of Thr456 phosphorylation is very low in confluent cells, exposure of stationary BHK 165-23 cells to the PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) resulted in a 3-fold increase in the modification of this residue. The stimulation of Thr456 phosphorylation was blocked by PKC inhibitors. The PKA inhibitor, H-89, also stimulated PMA-induced Thr456 modification probably because PKA mediated phosphorylation of CAD Ser1406 antagonizes the MAP kinase phosphorylation. Thus, the extent of Thr456 phosphorylation and the activation of pyrimidine biosynthesis depend on the synergistic and antagonistic interactions of three signaling pathways, MAP kinase, PKC and PKA. Deletions mutants lacking the putative PKC site, Ser1873 do not exhibit PMA induced Thr456 phosphorylation. We conclude that the activating MAP kinase phosphorylation of CAD proceeds through a PKC dependent pathway.