Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
The plasminogen activation (PA) system is an extensively used mechanism for the generation of proteolytic activity in the extracellular matrix, where it contributes to tissue remodeling in a wide range of physiopathological processes. Despite the limited information available at present on plasminogen activators, their inhibitors and cognate receptors in skeletal muscle, increasing evidence is accumulating on their important roles in the homeostasis of muscle fibers and their surrounding extracellular matrix. The development of mice deficient for the individual components of the PA system has provided an incisive approach to test the proposed muscle functions in vivo. Skeletal muscle regeneration induced by injury has been analyzed in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-, plasminogen (Plg)- and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)-deficient mice and has demonstrated profound effects of these molecules on the fibrotic state and the inflammatory response, which contribute to muscle repair. In particular, the opposite roles of uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 in this process are highlighted. Delineating the mechanisms by which the different plasminogen activation system components regulate tissue repair will be of potential therapeutic value for severe muscle disorders.