IMR Press / FBL / Volume 10 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/1619

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Membrane-permeable cygnets: rapid cellular internalization of fluorescent cGMP-indicators
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1 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington 05405-0075, USA

Academic Editor: Sharron Francis

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2005, 10(2), 1290–1301; https://doi.org/10.2741/1619
Published: 1 May 2005
Abstract

We have recently developed genetically encoded cGMP-indicators (cygnets) which have enabled us to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of intracellular cGMP in single cultured cells (1). However, primary mammalian cell types (dissociated cells or acute tissue samples) are often difficult to maintain undifferentiated in culture and the current established methods of introducing molecular reporters in single cells are laborious (micro-injection) and/or require cell culture techniques to accommodate the 1-2 day lag time of genetically mediated reporter expression. Here, we present an alternative, non-genetic method to rapidly introduce cGMP-indicators into cells and intact tissues using membrane permeable peptides (MPP). Five different 125 kDa MPP-cygnets were expressed and purified from insect SF9 cells. Three constructs showed high level cGMP-dependent FRET in vitro. One of the probes, Ant7-Cygnet, demonstrated emission ratio changes identical to the unmodified indicator. Ant7-Cygnet was rapidly (3 hours) and efficiently internalized in cultured smooth muscle cells and intact cerebral arteries. Furthermore, the internalized Ant7-Cygnet detected nitric oxide mediated elevations of intracellular cGMP in cultured smooth muscle cells and sensed increased levels of intracellular cGMP derived from C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) induced guanylyl cyclase stimulation in intact arteries. These results demonstrate that MPP-cygnets provide a novel and potentially powerful technique to study intracellular cGMP in intact tissue.

Keywords
cGMP
Cygnet
Membrane permeable peptides
Smooth muscle
NO
Natriuretic peptides
PKG
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