IMR Press / FBE / Volume 7 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E726

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Nitric oxide, a new player in l-dopa-induced dyskinesia?
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1 Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, School of Odontology of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
2 Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Applied Neurosciences (NAPNA), Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
3 Department of Neuroscience and Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, Ribeirao Preto SP, Brazil
4 Department of Farmacology, Center of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil
5 INSERM UMR 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, UPMC, CRICM, Experimental therapeutics Neurodegeneration, Salpetriere Hospital – Batiment ICM (Institute of the Brain and Spinal Cord), Paris, France

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2015, 7(1), 193–221;
Published: 1 January 2015

L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) remains the most effective symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the long-term use of L-DOPA causes, in combination with disease progression, the development of motor complications termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). LID is the result of profound modifications in the functional organization of the basal ganglia circuitry. There is increasing evidence of the involvement of non-dopaminergic systems on the pathophysiology of LID. This raises the possibility of novel promising therapeutic approaches in the future, including agents that interfere with glutamatergic, serotonergic, adenosine, adrenergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission that are currently in preclinical testing or clinical development. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge of the pharmacology of LID in PD. More importantly, this review attempts to highlight the role of nitric oxide (NO) in PD and provide a comprehensive picture of recent preclinical findings from our group and others showing its potential involvement in dyskinesia.

Nitric Oxide (NO)
Parkinson’s disease
L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias
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