IMR Press / FBE / Volume 6 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E685

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Molecular diagnosis of carcinomas of the thyroid gland

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1 Anatomic Pathology, Bellaria Hospital, University of Bologna School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy
2 Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FABIT), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Matteo Fassan

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2014, 6(1), 1–14; https://doi.org/10.2741/E685
Published: 1 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The post-genomic revolution in diagnostic pathology)
Abstract

Our understanding of the molecular pathology of thyroid cancer has progressed significantly. It is now apparent that thyroid tumors show a very good correlation between genotype and phenotype, a correlation that is much stronger than that observed in tumors of many other organs. Activation of classic oncogenes (BRAF, RAS, RET) activate MAPK signalling. Other pathways like the PI3K/PTEN/AKT cascade are also active in many thyroid tumors. The analysis of molecular profiles is generating data that can be applied to improve patient management. The common occurrence of thyroid nodules in the general population and the widespread use of fine needle aspiration for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules creates an unprecedented opportunity to apply what we have learnt from the molecular alterations of thyroid cancer to the clinical arena.


Keywords
Review
Thyroid carcinomas
Molecular diagnostic
BRAF
Molecular techniques
Review
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