IMR Press / FBE / Volume 5 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/E681

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Cell development obeys maximum fisher information

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1 College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721
2 Departments of Radiology and Integrated Mathematical Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: David L. Abel

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2013, 5(3), 1017–1032;
Published: 1 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The transition from constraint to regulation at the origin of life)

Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micrometer and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micrometer. The NM contains approximately 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC. Therefore the first-order change in I = 0. But also, the 2nd-order change in I is likewise close to zero, indicating significant stability to environmental perturbations. Many predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4 nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F approximately 1016 proteins/m2 -s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKLIDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. It is also shown that such maximum information → a cell state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, one condition for life.

Emergent Life
Protein Flux
Maximum Fisher Information
Kullback-Liebler Entropy
SecondOrder Stability
Individually Charged NPCS
Maximum Order
Minimum Entropy
Stability To Perturbation
Time Gating
Prescribed Information
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