Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Cell development obeys maximum fisher information
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Academic Editor: David L. Abel
Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micrometer and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micrometer. The NM contains approximately 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC. Therefore the first-order change in I = 0. But also, the 2nd-order change in I is likewise close to zero, indicating significant stability to environmental perturbations. Many predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4 nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F approximately 1016 proteins/m2 -s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. It is also shown that such maximum information → a cell state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, one condition for life.