IMR Press / FBE / Volume 5 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E619

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Design of bone-integrating organic-inorganic composite suitable for bone repair

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1 Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0196, Japan

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Roger J. Narayan

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2013, 5(1), 333–340; https://doi.org/10.2741/E619
Published: 1 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured biomaterials)
Abstract

Several ceramics exhibit specific biological affinity, i.e. direct bone integration, when implanted in bony defects. They are called bioactive ceramics and utilized as important bone substitutes. However, there is limitation on clinical application, because of their inappropriate mechanical properties such as high Young's modulus and low fracture toughness. Novel bioactive materials exhibiting high machinability and flexibility have been desired in medical fields. Mixing bioactive ceramic powders and organic polymers have developed various organic-inorganic composites. Their mechanical property and bioactivity are mainly governed by the ceramics content. It is known that bioactive ceramics integrate with the bone through bone-like hydroxyapatite layer formed on their surfaces by chemical reaction with body fluid. This is triggered by a catalytic effect of various functional groups. On the basis of these facts, novel bioactive organicinorganic nanocomposites have been developed. In these composites, inorganic components effective for triggering the hydroxyapatite nucleation are dispersed in polymer matrix at molecular level. Concept of the organic-inorganic composite is also applicable for providing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement with the bioactivity.

Keywords
Bone integration
Bioactive ceramics
Organic-inorganic nanocomposite
Mechanical property
Review
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