IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/E566

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Assessing the clinical significance of tumor markers in common neoplasms

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1 University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
2 Department of Radiotherapy and Internal Oncology, University Hospital for Tumors, Sestre milosrdnice, University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia
3 Laboratory for Hereditary Cancer, Division of Molecular Medicine, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(7), 2558–2578;
Published: 1 June 2012

The term tumor markers include a spectrum of molecules and substances with widely divergent characteristics whose presence in the significant amount can be related to the malignant disease. An ideal tumor marker should have high specificity and sensitivity, which would allow its use in early diagnosis and prognosis of malignant disease, as well as in prediction of therapeutic response and follow-up of the patients. Numerous biochemical entities have emerged as potentially valuable tumor markers so far, but only few markers showed to be of considerable clinical reliability and have been accepted into standard clinical practice. Recent development of genomics and proteomics has enabled the examination of many new potential tumor markers. Scientific studies on discovery, development, and application of tumor markers have been proceeding quite rapidly providing great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients. This review is focusing on the clinical usefulness of various tumor markers already in clinical practice as well as certain potential markers, giving a brief description of their prognostic and predictive significance in most common malignancies.

Tumor markers
Clinical significance
Breast tumor markers
Gastrointestinal tumor markers
Gynecological tumor markers
Prostate tumor markers
Genetic markers
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