IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/E560

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Sleep, inflammation and cardiovascular disease

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1 Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street C8, Boston MA 02111, USA
2 Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Dana 779, Boston, MA 02110, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(7), 2490–2501;
Published: 1 June 2012

In data from prospective cohort studies, self report of insufficient or disturbed sleep is related to increased overall and cardiovascular morbidity. Inflammation is established as a key mechanism in the development of arteriosclerotic heart and vascular disease. Inflammation has been considered a possible link between short sleep and cardiovascular disease and morbidity. Measures of inflammation are increased by experimental sleep deprivation, but in cohort studies a relationship of sleep duration to inflammatory markers is less clear. In these studies the association of self reported short sleep to cardiac morbidity is confounded by many psychological and socioeconomic variables. More studies are needed to explain the link between short sleep duration and cardiac morbidity. Experimental studies of sleep deprivation mimicking habitual shortened sleep over long time intervals, and studies employing sleep extension in habitual short sleepers will allow better characterization of the health benefits of adequate sleep duration. Prospective cohort studies should include objective measures of sleep duration and should to control for the known confounding variables.

Cardiovascular disease
C-reactive protein
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Sleep deprivation
Sleep complaint
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