IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/E432

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


 Increased levels of hemoglobin and α1-microglobulin in Huntington’s disease

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1 Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 221 84 Lund, Sweden
2 Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, England, UK
3 Neuronal Survival Unit, Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University, S-221 84 Lund, Sweden

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(3), 950–957;
Published: 1 January 2012

Hemoglobin released from damaged erythrocytes is a major pro-oxidant, generator of free radicals and inflammatory mediator. Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities, in which oxidative stress has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism. In the present work we have investigated levels of hemoglobin and markers of oxidative damage, including the heme- and radical-scavenger α1- microglobulin, in plasma and urine samples from two separate sample cohorts, including controls, premanifest gene carriers and subjects at different stages of Huntington’s disease. The results show statistically significant increased levels of hemoglobin and α1- microglobulin in Huntington’s disease urine samples. Interestingly, urine hemoglobin levels correlate with clinical severity. The results suggest that hemolysis may be linked to the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease and that assay of hemoglobin and α1-microglobulin may provide biomarkers that are linked to biologically relevant processes. 

Huntington’s disease
Oxidative Stress
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