IMR Press / FBE / Volume 3 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/E339

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Physiological normoxia and chondrogenic potential of chondrocytes
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1 Guy Hilton Research Centre, Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-On-Trent, ST4 7QB, UK
2 Keele University, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire, SY10 7AG, UK

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Ali Mobasheri

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2011, 3(4), 1365–1374; https://doi.org/10.2741/E339
Published: 1 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current trends in cartilage and mesenchymal stem cell biology)
Abstract

Cartilage is poorly vascularised with a limited capacity for repair following damage. The poor vascularisation results in cartilage tissue having a low normoxic value. This study examined and compared the effects of physiological cartilage normoxia (2% O2), hypoxia (0.2% O2), and hyperoxia (21% O2) on human articular chondrocytes (hAC) during similar time courses to those prior to transplant in cell therapy procedures. hAC were isolated and maintained at 0.2% O2, 2% O2, or 21% O2. Population doublings (PDs), cell surface area, chondrogenic differentiation potential, RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (Collagen Type II) were used to confirm chondrogenic differentiation of micromass pellets in different O2. Isolation and maintenance of hAC at less than 2% O2 resulted in significant alterations in surface area (smaller), rate of proliferation (reduced), and chondrogenic differentiation potential (enhanced). Chondrogenic gene expression appeared largely insensitive to O2 concentration. A relationship was apparent between collagen type II protein presence and O2 concentration. Oxygen concentrations of 2% O2 or less promoted retention of a dedifferentiated hAC phenotype and enhanced stability of hAC chondrogenesis.

Keywords
Cartilage
Osteoarthritis
Hypoxia
Cell Therapy
Chondrocyte
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