IMR Press / FBE / Volume 3 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E224

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Lights and shadows concerning platelet products for musculoskeletal regeneration

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1 Laboratory of Surgical and Preclinical Studies, Research Institute Codivilla Putti-Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
2 Specialized Centre “Preclinical Studies on Innovative Technological and Therapeutical Strategies”, Research Institute Codivilla Putti-Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
3 Laboratory of Biomechanics, Research Institute Codivilla PuttiRizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
4 Struttura Complessa Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica I, Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
5 Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Cell Biology, Research Institute Codivilla Putti-Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
6 Department of Reproduction and Ageing, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2011, 3(1), 96–107;
Published: 1 January 2011

Various types of platelet (PLT) products, such as Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet Gel (PG), derived from autologous peripheral blood, have been used for tissue repair. The good clinical outcomes, due mainly to their safety and Growth Factor (GF) content, have led to a wide use of PLT products in many fields of medicine. However, until now the existing literature adds controversies to the use of PLT concentrates. When talking about PLTs and their products, a great number of variables have to be considered. These variables are mainly related to PRP preparation methods, the type of activators, intra- and inter-species variability, types of pathology to be treated, the ways and times of administration and the association of PRP or PG with other treatments. This review considers and discusses these causes of variability with particular attention to orthopaedic implications. The possibility of improving the knowledge on variables affecting therapeutic efficacy will surely help in addressing the best combination of factors implied in the different steps of PLT concentrate preparation and use.

Platelet Rich Plasma
Platelet Gel
Musculoskeletal Tissue
Growth Factors
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