Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Dendritic cell (DC) is regarded as a powerful means for anti-cancer immunotherapy. Clinical trials of cancer therapy with DC loaded with cancer antigens, such as tumor cell-lysates or HLA class I-binding antigenic peptides, have been conducted. Antigen-specific negative manipulation of the immune response by DC is a potential treatment for autoimmune diseases and also for control of allo-reactive immune responses in transplantation medicine. Currently, DC for clinical use are generated from peripheral blood monocytes of the patients. However, the number of monocytes obtained from the patients is limited and the potential of monocytes to differentiate into DC varies depending on the blood donor. Thus, the issue of limited cells is a serious obstacle for DC therapy. ES cells and iPS cells have pluripotency and unlimited propagation capacity and may be an ideal cell source for DC-therapy. Several groups, including us, have developed methods to generate DC from ES cells or iPS cells. This review introduces the studies on generation, characterization, and genetic modification of DC derived from ES cells or iPS cells.