Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
PKB/Akt signaling in cardiac development and disease
In mammals, there are three Akt/PKB (protein kinase B) isoforms termed Akt1/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ, and Akt3/PKBγ (hereafter referred to as Akt) that are encoded by three distinct genes localized on different chromosomes. Although the three Akt proteins share high homology and display similar domain structures, mouse genetic studies have demonstrated that they play over-lapping but also differential roles in development and physiology. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the roles of Akt signaling in heart development and disease, together with discussion on Akt signaling connection to key signaling pathways in early cardiac specification. The pioneering work on Akt's function in cardiomyocytes performed by Kenneth Walsh's group, was first reported in the new millennium (1) and thus, it is now the right time to look back at some of the discoveries of Akt's role in cardiac biology over the past decade.