IMR Press / FBE / Volume 2 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/E120

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Molecular markers for prostatic cancer
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1 Department of Urology, University of Messina, Consolare Valeria Avenue, 98100 Messina, Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Giovanni Li Volti

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2010, 2(2), 641–656; https://doi.org/10.2741/E120
Published: 1 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical markers in biological fluids)
Abstract

Prostate cancer (caP) is a major public health problem. Many groups have attempted to identify prognostic risk factors to early detect caP and to identify who will need active treatment. Since the introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA), diagnosis of caP has increased even as mortality for prostatic cancer has declined. Using current recommended guidelines, the PSA test suffers from both of limited specificity and sensitivity. With the aim to improve early detection of prostatic cancer the volume adjusted PSA, PSA isoforms and PSA kinetics have been investigated. Recently, technological advances in molecular assays have led to the discovery of new markers with high specificity. Further, proteomic array profiling and DNA methylation assays could provide for more accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Current evidence suggests that no single marker is likely to achieve the desired level of diagnostic and prognostic accuracy: future research should focus on validation of already existing biomarkers and the discovery of new markers to identify men with aggressive prostate cancer and to predict outcomes after therapies.

Keywords
Prostate cancer
markers
PSA
PCA3
EPCA
neuroendocrine markers
DNA biomarkers
prostate antigens
PSMA
Review
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