IMR Press / FBE / Volume 13 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/874

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Insights into the COVID-19 pandemic: Origin, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic interventions
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1 Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O.Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
Send correspondence to: Mahmoud M. Berekaa, Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia, Tel: 966-13331304, Fax: 966-3330225, E-mail: mberekaa@iau.edu.sa
Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2021, 13(1), 117–139; https://doi.org/10.2741/874
Published: 1 October 2020
Abstract

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the human coronavirus (HCoV) family that targets the lower part of the respiratory tract and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In a short span of time, this infection has led to a global pandemic and has become a significant threat to the existence of present human society. Currently, there are no treatments for this infection and the measures established across various countries such as social distancing, usage of mask to prevent entry of the virus into the respiratory tract, quarantine, and containment together have reduced the prevalence of this disease and mortality in highly susceptible individuals. Here, we examine the structure, replication cycle, phylogeny and genomic organization of this virus and discuss the role of spike (S) protein of the virus, an important structure that interacts with the host ACE2 receptor facilitating viral entry. Further, we explore the epidemiology, symptoms of the disease, describe the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that establishes the diagnosis of the disease and also review its unique diagnostic features in the chest CT-Scan. Finally, we review the current approaches to develop therapies and vaccines as a measure for disease prevention and control.

Keywords
Coronaviruses
COVID-19
ACE2
S spike protein
SARS-CoV-2
Pathogenesis
Genomic Organization
Transmission Diagnosis
Review
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