IMR Press / FBE / Volume 10 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/E839

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Vaginal microbiota dysmicrobism and role of biofilm-forming bacteria

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1 Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Via dell’Istria 65/1, Trieste, 34137 Italy
2 Department of Medical Sciences - University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, Trieste, 34127 Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2018, 10(3), 528–536; https://doi.org/10.2741/E839
Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial biofilm: when unity is strength)
Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis involves the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, guaranteeing immune escape and spread of antibiotic resistance. To spot known biofilm-forming bacteria, we profiled the vaginal microbiome of sixty-four symptomatic women suffering from a different grade of vaginal disorders and sixty asymptomatic healthy women. Specific microbial profiles distinguished symptomatic from asymptomatic women and characterized the grade of dysmicrobism within the symptomatic group. Lactobacillus crispatus and iners predominated on the healthy vaginal mucosa, while Lactobacillus gasseri predominated in the intermediate dysmicrobism. Furthermore, the intermediate grade of dysmicrobism was characterized by other lactic acid-producers species than Lactobacilli, able to rescue the microbial imbalance, and Ureaplasma parvum-serovar 3. The vaginosis group exhibited the overgrowth of Prevotella bivia, which is known to enhance the biofilm formation by Gardnerella vaginalis, and the presence of Streptococcus anginosus, which is emerging as a new cooperating player of the vaginal biofilm. Identifying specific microorganisms promoting or preventing the biofilm formation could increase the accuracy for a better definition of the vaginal dysmicrobism concept and therapeutic intervention.

Keywords
Biofilm
Bacterial Vaginosis
Microbiota
Dysmicrobism
Recurrence
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