IMR Press / FBE / Volume 10 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/E825

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Daily subcutaneous testosterone for management of testosterone deficiency

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1 Seaside Medical Practice, 2001 Santa Monica Blvd, Suite 765W, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA
2 Djehuty Biomed Consulting, 106 Rugged Dr., Red Oak, TX 75154, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2018, 10(2), 334–343; https://doi.org/10.2741/E825
Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of xenobiotically-induced abnormal development)
Abstract

Testosterone deficiency (TD) is a public health concern, a predictor of metabolic syndrome, and is associated with an increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Testosterone deficiency in men is treated by a variety of methods including injectable testosterone compounds, patches, gels, pellets, and oral preparations. The use of testosterone alone has been linked to various adverse effects including, infertility, testicular atrophy, erythropoiesis, and gynecomastia. To determine the effectiveness of therapy using the Daily Subcutaneous Testosterone (DST) method in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and an aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole), a retrospective analysis was conducted of men diagnosed and treated for TD. Changes in testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), pregnenolone, and hemoglobin were determined. There was a significant increase in total testosterone, free serum testosterone, and direct free testosterone in the testosterone treated patients. There was a significant increase in total and free testosterone levels with the DST method combined with hCG and anastrozole, suggesting that DST therapy is a viable option to restore testosterone levels in men.

Keywords
Daily Subcutaneous Testosterone Method
Testosterone
Serum Free Testosterone
Testosterone Deficiency
human chorionic gonadotropin
aromatase inhibitor
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