European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology (EJGO) is published by IMR Press from Volume 40 Issue 1 (2019). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and pathological features of female aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM), as well as its diagnosis and prognosis. Materials and Methods: The medical information of five AAM patients aged from 20 to 52 years was retrospectively collected between December 2011 and January 2015, and the clinical and pathological features, diagnostic methods, and prognosis were analyzed. Results: Clinical manifestations were different for each patient, including pelvic cystic mass detected by B-scan ultrasound in patient 1, low abdominal pain in patient 2, vaginal prolapse in patient 3, vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse in patient 4, and vaginal mass found by physical examination in patient 5. Three patients had vaginal masses and the other two had pelvic or abdominal masses. Enhanced CT or MRI revealed a mass with a spiral-like or stratified structure. The tumor cells were characterized by identical morphology, presented as stellate-shaped, oval, or spindle-shaped cells revealed by pathological studies, with a large amount of mucosal matrix, expanded thin envelope, and thick-walled blood vessels. The masses were soft, and usually had no obvious envelope or partial envelope (including complete envelope in two patients, partial envelope in one patient, and no envelope in two patients). All patients underwent surgeries; one of them had recurrent tumor and underwent secondary surgery. Conclusion: Although AAM is a benign tumor, it has high recurrent rate and requires follow-up. Surgery is the main therapeutic method, the extended dissection is not emphasized, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment could be considered.