IMR Press / EJGO / Volume 36 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.12892/ejgo2682.2015

European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology (EJGO) is published by IMR Press from Volume 40 Issue 1 (2019). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.

Open Access Case Report
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) caused by occult breast cancer and metastatic carcinoma of the lymph node
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1 1 Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Command PLA, Beijing
2 2Institute of Aviation Medicine, Air Force, Beijing
3 3Deparment of Radiology, General Hospital of Beijing Command PLA, Beijing (China)
Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. 2015, 36(4), 485–487;
Published: 10 August 2015

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are immune-mediated, subacute, and progressive syndromes caused by remote effects of malignant tumours rather than the direct infiltration of tumours. The most common maladies related to PNS are small cell lung cancer, breast and ovarian cancer, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Diagnoses of PNS frequently precede tumour diagnoses because the primary tumour is often occult. It is difficult for clinicians to recognise PNS, because there are various neurological symptoms and signs in the patient but few abnormal results of the examinations. The examination of paraneoplastic panels (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum) is useful in the diagnosis of PNS, but the false negatives should be considered. Due to the severe neurological morbidity and mortality caused by PNS, early diagnoses are important to allow for time to treat the underlying tumour and to obtain functional improvement. It is worth noting that regular re-examination and follow-up are crucial for reducing the rates of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of PNS.
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes
Occult breast cancer
Metastatic carcinoma of the lymph node
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