European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology (EJGO) is published by IMR Press from Volume 40 Issue 1 (2019). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.
Can routine gynecologic examination contribute to the diagnosis of cervical involvement by primaryendometrial cancer?
Objective: There are few data in the literature as to whether findings at routine preoperative gynecologic examination of patients with primary endometrial cancer including cervical cytology, colposcopy and rectovaginal bimanual pelvic exam could predict cervical extension of the disease. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study was undertaken to preoperatively identify potential clinical parameters associated with the histological diagnosis of cervical involvement by primary endometrial cancer in the hysterectomy specimen. We reviewed the records of 104 patients with Stage II endometrial cancer treated at our institution between 1985 and 2005 by simple or radical abdominal hysterectomy with special emphasis on cervical Pap smear, colposcopy, cervical palpation as well as rectal parametrial assessment. Patients with Stage I disease operated on before and after each study patient were selected as controls (n = 208). Patients with more advanced disease were excluded. Results: Overall, 312 records of patients with primary endometrial cancer were reviewed. Patients with Stage II disease had a significantly lower prevalence (p < 0.0001) of endometrioid carcinomas and a significantly higher (p < 0.01) prevalence of G3 tumors compared to the control patients. Pap smears and colposcopic findings were abnormal in 39% of patients with Stage II and in 9% and 10% of patients with Stage I disease (p < 0.0001). Of patients with Stage II disease, 42% had a suspicious cervical palpation compared to only 4% of patients with Stage I disease (p < 0.0005). Parametrial assessment was suspicious in 16% of patients with Stage II disease and in no patient with Stage I disease (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The four routine clinical parameters Pap smear, colposcopy, cervical palpation and rectal parametrial examination are significantly more often pathologic in patients with Stage II than in Stage I disease. The majority of patients with Stage II disease had at least one of these tests positive. Thus they may be useful to preoperatively detect cervical involvement by primary endometrial cancer.