European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology (EJGO) is published by IMR Press from Volume 40 Issue 1 (2019). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.
3-D fractal tumor growth of epithelial ovarian cancer
Purpose: A fractal is a shape made of parts similar to the whole. Our objective was to determine whether surface growth patterns in malignant epithelial ovarian tumors are 3-D fractal, and if the mean fractal dimension differs according to histologic types. Methods: After the images of photographs of 139 resected malignant epithelial ovarian tumors were digitized, the fractal dimensions of surface of solid portions were measured using 3-D fractal analysis software. Results: The mean fractal dimensions of the surface of a solid area of tumor in serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell adenocarcinoma were 2.320, 2.224, 2.229, and 2.298, respectively. Those of serous and mucinous cystadenoma of low malignant potential (LMP) were 2.398 and 2.282, respectively. These values were significantly greater than the topological dimension of a surface (= 2). The mean fractal dimensions of a solid area of tumor inside the cyst for serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell carcinoma were 2.347, 2.223, 2.228, and 2.310, respectively. The values for serous and mucinous cystadenoma of LMP were 2.398 and 2.282, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that the surface of a solid area of malignant epithelial ovarian tumors has a 3-D fractal structure, and the mean fractal dimension may differ according to histologic types.