IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 48 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog4804153
Open Access Original Research
The possible association of uterine fibroid formation with copper intrauterine device use: a cross-sectional study
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1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, 34668 Istanbul, Turkey
*Correspondence: (Sevcan Arzu Arinkan)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2021, 48(4), 969–973;
Submitted: 29 January 2021 | Revised: 14 April 2021 | Accepted: 19 April 2021 | Published: 15 August 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Background: Fibroids are the most common pelvic tumors in females, affecting approximately 30%–50% of women of fertility age. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are widely used in the world. Copper-IUDs which are one of the common causes of intrauterine chronic inflammation might create a suitable microenvironment for fibroid growth. This study aimed to find an answer to investigate whether there is an association between fibroids and copper (Cu) T-IUD use. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 788 participants. The participants were divided into two groups based on fibroid presence (study group) or absence (control group). For this study, usage of IUDs was defined as Cu T-IUD use for at least one year. Medical and obstetric history, oral contraceptive (OC) and/or IUD use and duration of use, as well as smoking, were questioned. Results: In participants who had fibroids, IUD use was found to be statistically significantly higher (55.5% vs 43.4%) (P = 0.001). In addition, according to multiple logistic regression analysis, having fibroids was found to be significantly related to age, number of abortions, smoking, and duration of Cu T-IUD use. A statistically significant correlation was not found between fibroid diameter, parity, and duration of OC use; however, a statistically weak correlation was found between fibroid size and duration of Cu T-IUD use. Conclusions: This study points to the association of Cu T-IUD use, inflammation, and fibroids. Our results can provide a steppingstone for the development of additional studies investigating this hypothesis. If inflammation is the preliminary event and copper IUDs cause inflammation, preventive health strategies may be implemented to lessen the possibility of fibroid development.

Intrauterine device
Uterine fibroid
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